Definitions for the self-assessment

SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY

Social sustainability refers to the formal and informal processes, systems, structures, and relationships that actively support the capacity of current and future generations to create healthy, diverse, connected and democratic communities without jeopardizing other aspects of sustainability. In this assessment, Social Sustainability is combined from the following indicators: Perceived Access and Support for Intermodality in the transport system, and Noise Hindrance and Accidents & Fatalities caused by transportation.

PERCEIVED ACCESS

Definitions: The combination of transport affordability, mobility poverty, accessibility poverty, and exposure to transport externalities affecting the perceived access to mobility. In the context of new sustainable mobility options, this sets requirements on the quality, comfort, and accessibility (physical accessibility to ‘traditional’ mobility services and digital accessibility to ‘new’ mobility services supported on electronic platforms) on the services they offer.

Statements with examples:

  1. The transport system is safe, secure and does not affect the health of any user – the basic requirement of not being affected by transport externalities.
  2. The transport system offers essential accessibility for transport poverty groups – the available mobility solutions offer access to destinations, which are essential for users’ daily activities and the reasonable quality of life for transport poverty groups.
  3. The costs of mobility do not require low-income users to curtail other activities – with the costs of available mobility solutions, low-income individual or household can make necessary journeys to work, school, health and other social services or urgent other journeys without having to curtail other essential activities.
  4. The vehicles in the transport system of the area suit the capabilities of all users – the vehicles of the available mobility solutions suit the physical and mental capabilities of all the transport users. For example, the disabled groups have been considered in transportation, orientation and warning, and accessibility in the public service facilities throughout the area in question.
  5. Transport poverty group member does not need to invest lots of time for mobility – moving further away from basic needs, a member of the transport poverty group does not need to invest considerable time to reach the essential destination, leading to time poverty and possible social isolation.

SUPPORT FOR INTERMODALITY

Definitions: The availability of intermodal connections and quality of the interchange facilities. Also includes the strategic focus of the transport authority in enabling different business models/collaboration and opportunities for transport organizations to solve mobility needs. Increases the reliability of the transport system.

Statements with examples:

  1. Most interchange facilities offer shelter for climate conditions – such as rain, direct sunlight, or even extreme temperatures.
  2. The quality of trip information and route guidance is good – the accuracy and reliability of information related to the transport system are good and accessible for most transport users so that intermodal changes are easy.
  3. The ticketing system of the area is integrated – there is a single ticket in the area or mobility/ticketing service that makes the intermodal changes effortless.
  4. The schedules of different modes in public transport are synchronized – the high capacity modes of the transport system are linked to the feeder lines, or the whole system is organized so that the user’s waiting time is minimized.
  5. The frequency and reliability of the public transport are good – in addition to the previous item, the user understands and can rely on the schedule of the transport system in the area, or the frequency of the service is so good that the user does not need to think about the schedule.

NOISE HINDRANCE

Definitions: Noise pollution, or exposure to ambient sound levels that are beyond the usual comfort levels, can affect the quality of life and lead to cognitive impairment in children, high stress levels, sleep disturbance and negative health impacts, such as problems with the cardiovascular and metabolic systems.

Statements with examples:

  1. The noise hindrance is mitigated with barriers – reflects the starting point or the basic level of acknowledging the issue in the area.
  2. The noise hindrance has been surveyed by field measurements – this has been done, for example, at locations near a representative random selection of residential houses.
  3. The noise hindrance is regularly surveyed by field measurements – compared to the previous item, the process is continuous and a part of an active effort to mitigate the problems.
  4. The noise hindrance of transportation is regulated by the local authority – reflects a strong policy supporting the reduction of noise hindrance in the area.
  5. Transport noise is not an issue in the area – the hindrance has already been removed in one way or another.

ACCIDENTS & FATALITIES

Definitions: Your expert opinion on the impact of the solution on the number of accidents and fatalities in the area. Accidents and fatalities defined traditionally – for example, Global Cities Institute (2013), Global City Indicators, “Profile Indicators”.

Statements with examples:

  • All options – in your expert opinion, this is a good estimate of the number of serious accidents in the area caused by transportation.

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

Environmental sustainability is living within ecological limits, protecting natural resources, and meeting the needs of communities without compromising other aspects of sustainability or the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In this assessment, Environmental Sustainability is combined from the following indicators: Energy Efficiency and Emissions of transportation in the area, and focus on Shared Mobility services, for example, in the Parking Policy of the area.

AIR POLLUTING EMISSIONS

Definitions: Air polluting emissions of all passenger and freight city transport modes. In the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS), people were asked whether they experienced four neighbourhood problems: heavy traffic, litter, noise and air pollution (Eurofound, 2017). Since the topic has been in the survey (2011), a quarter of the EU population reported some or big problems with air pollution in their neighbourhood.

Statements with examples:

  1. The air pollution or quality indices are monitored regularly – reflects the starting point or the basic level of acknowledging the issue in the area.
  2. The vehicles operated by the local authority are being converted to low emission vehicles – the low hanging fruit in addressing air pollution as these vehicles (low or zero-emission) brings along other benefits also to the local authority.
  3. There are pedestrian zones in the area – only essential car or truck use is accepted in many zones.
  4. All vehicles operated by the local authority are already emission-free – concerns both passenger transport and urban logistics. Reflects already advanced development state in the theme of air quality in the area.
  5. All vehicles in the area are emission-free – compared to the previous item, privately operated vehicles are emission-free. Reflects a strong policy supporting the reduction of air pollution in the area.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Definitions: Compared to the air polluting emissions, this aspect refers to all means of increasing sustainability by being energy efficient.

Statements with examples:

  1. The transport (passengers, logistics and freight) in the area is mainly on wheels – represents the starting point or the basic level of development in energy efficiency.
  2. The mass transport network is well used in passenger traffic – transportation is mainly on wheels, but people use high capacity transport modes for most of their mobility needs.
  3. The vehicles in mass transport are new and energy-efficient – compared to the previous item, the vehicles in mass transportation of people are energy efficient.
  4. The mass transport network is mainly based on efficient rail-based modes – compared to the previous item, logistics operations are mainly on wheels, but the mass transportation of people utilizes efficient rail-based modes.
  5. The transport in the area is mainly efficient rail-based transport – compared to the previous item, urban logistics and freight in the area utilize rail-based modes or equally energy-efficient vehicles.

PARKING POLICY

Definitions: The number of parking spaces that the city is allocating for private cars in the area and the strategic aim of using parking policies to support sustainable mobility.

Statements with examples:

  1. The local authority does not have a parking policy in the area – it represents the starting point or the basic level of development in city planning regarding parking policies.
  2. There is a parking policy in the area, but it does not support shared use of vehicles – some steps have been taken to reduce the need for curbside parking or parking spaces in real estates, but no special attention has been given to the shared use of vehicles and/or transport on demand.
  3. Politicians are ready to reduce private motoring in the area with parking policies – reflects a strong parking policy supporting the reduction of private car use and ownership in the area.
  4. The local authority is active in adapting parking standards in the area – policies have been put into action by supporting new sustainable mobility business models and adapting parking standards, for example, inside new residential areas (reducing the area of parking space, allocating parking spaces for shared cars/transport on demand and enabling new mobility services for residents).
  5. The parking policy in the area favours shared cars – sustainable mobility is extensively favoured in curbside parking.

SHARED MOBILITY SERVICES

Definitions: The availability and market penetration of shared and combined (e.g., carpooling) travel options. This refers to the mobility options for people wanting to reduce the need to own the car but needs one mobility solution for the whole or the major part of the trip.

Statements with examples:

  1. No companies are offering shared vehicles in the area – this represents the starting point in the market penetration of shared mobility services in the area.
  2. There are pilots/campaigns/incentives focusing on shared mobility options – represents the first steps in the market penetration of shared mobility services in the area and probably is still publicly (co)funded project-based activity.
  3. Companies in the area offer shared mobility opportunities – some market-based services are operational beyond the piloting and testing phase.
  4. There are different kinds of operators providing combined mobility in the area – the shared mobility options have been made easy to use by combined mobility offering (combining, for example, public transport, shared vehicles, shared bikes, ride-sharing, rental cars, taxis, or rental boats etc.) by public or commercial actor.
  5. Companies in the area offer customers package deals consisting of mobility options – different actors, such as grocery stores, theatres, estate developers and housing companies etc., in the area work together with shared or combined mobility operators and offer package deals to their customers.

ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

Economic sustainability refers to practices that support the longevity of economic activities without negatively impacting social, environmental, and attractive aspects of the community. In this assessment, Economic Sustainability is combined from the following indicators: The Role of Public Transportation and policymakers in supporting Economic Opportunities in the area and the capability of existing Public Investments and Open Data to support economic sustainability.

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

Definitions: The number of new mobility offerings connected to public transportation. Refers to “channels to reach new customers”. Compared to the visibility of mobility information, this aspect takes the viewpoint of communicating the value proposition of public transportation through collaborating with different partners.

Statements with examples:

  1. Customers buy public transportation tickets only via service providers’ own channels – represents the starting point in collaboration with other actors in the area.
  2. Customers can buy PT tickets through several sales channels offered by third parties – opening application interfaces or collaboration with kiosk owners to make tickets easier to purchase.
  3. The transport authority connects transport providers to form package deals – these value-adding package deals can be, for example, bicycle/car sharing, carpooling, taxis, or similar services connected to public transport offering.
  4. The transport authority already offers multimodal package deals to users – the public transportation offering in the area has been supplemented with many value-adding third party mobility services to form a Mobility-as-a-Service offering for the resident, workers and visitors of the area.
  5. Companies of the area combine public transport ticket with their own services – hotels, theatres, shopping malls etc. regular service providers of the area offer service packages combining public transport with their own services, thus raising the profile of public transportation in the area.

ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY

Definitions: The strategic focus of the policymakers in enabling different business models/collaboration and opportunities for transport organizations to solve mobility needs.

Statements with examples:

  1. The policymakers are enabling the development of sustainable mobility solutions – represents the basic requirement of developing sustainable mobility solutions for different mobility needs in the area.
  2. There is long term support for increasing the sustainability of transportation – with the long timespan in developing truly sustainable solutions in mobility, the support from the policymakers does not change after every election.
  3. Some of the risks related to developing new solutions are covered with public funding – compared to the previous statement, and regardless of the nature of the operator (public or private), the long term support is also portrayed with financial support from public funds during the development/piloting phase.
  4. The transport authority prominent in the area is also supporting economic activity – in addition to the support from policymakers, the transport authority prominent in the area is willing to provide solution-providers with the information needed for the full implementation of sustainable mobility solutions or the solutions developed by the transport authority are creating economic opportunities in new markets or solution areas.
  5. Sustainable mobility solutions have been taken into account in local regulation – the development of new sustainable mobility solutions has been considered in local laws and regulations to remove possible barriers in the development.

THE NEED FOR PUBLIC INVESTMENTS

Definitions: The need for new local investments (technology, infrastructure, vehicles) in the area. This relates to the situation when there is no possibility to use existing infrastructure or those investments are not covered, for example, by the government or co-funded by the EU for the benefit of all the operators/solutions.

Statements with examples:

  1. A new sustainable mobility solution requires considerable supporting investments – a new publicly-funded sustainable mobility solution in the area requires considerable supporting investments from local government or transport authority.
  2. The public sector needs to invest for a market-based operator to enter the market – there is a possibility for a public-private-partnership for solving mobility needs and market-based operation of those solutions, but still, the public sector needs to invest in infrastructure or data interfaces for such market-based operator to enter the area.
  3. The city authorities have the capability to use new procurement methods – the public sector has the capability and willingness to use new procurement methods such as pre-commercial procurement or alliance model to acquire mobility technologies or services suitable for sustainability targets of the area.
  4. The public space in the area has been reclaimed from wheel-based transportation – from the sustainability point of view, public space and infrastructure are already supporting the introduction of more sustainable mobility solutions without extensive investments or infrastructure development.
  5. The existing infrastructure and vehicle fleets already meet the sustainable targets – local targets for the sustainability of mobility has already been met in the area.

OPEN MOBILITY DATA

Definitions: The availability of open mobility data for different actors in the area. Facilitates the sharing of mobility-related information through different channels and creating value-adding services for users based on shared information.

Statements with examples:

  1. There is enough information about the efficiency of the transport system in the area – at least the traffic/city planners in the area get enough information about the efficiency of different parts of the transport system in the area.
  2. There is a solution that combines existing information conveniently for the user – the basic transport-related information is shared so that passengers can get the information needed for multimodal mobility from a popular application in the area or from an application they prefer to use.
  3. Stakeholders get information about the use of mobility solutions in a usable format – different mobility solutions have the capacity to share data about the use of the solution to actors such as commercial sponsors or city officials.
  4. Public operators share their transport-related data for different actors – going beyond the basic transport information, such as timetables, public transport operators share openly their transport-related data for different actors for creating value-adding applications based on that data.
  5. All mobility-related data from the area is open for different actors to use – compared to the previous statement, also commercial actor shares their data for the common good and creation of value-adding services.

ATTRACTIVENESS

Following the holistic viewpoints of the HUPMOBILE project, the attractiveness of the area comprises sustainability aspects that do not contribute to only one pillar of sustainability. In this assessment, the Area’s Attractiveness is combined from the following indicators: The opportunities for Active Mobility, perceived Security, Functional Diversity in the area, and Congestion and Delays experienced in the transport system.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACTIVE MOBILITY

Definitions: Options and infrastructure for active mobility, which refers to using the human-powered modes, namely walking and cycling. Also, the opportunity for active mobility is a proxy for the quality of the public spaces, which is one aspect of the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents and companies operating in the area.

Statements with examples:

  1. The public authority is building new infrastructure for active modes in the area – although the starting point may not be great, there is a strategic focus among public authorities to support active mobility in the area.
  2. The biking network is comprehensive, and most of it is well used in the area – compared to the previous item, the infrastructure, according to national standards, is already comprehensive and also used (not just empty biking lanes due to lack of perceived security or supporting facilities such as bicycle storages).
  3. The condition of bike lanes and sidewalks is excellent in the area – compared to the previous item, the ability to use most of the bike lanes and sidewalks is excellent in all weather conditions, thus supporting the perceived security of these transport modes.
  4. The top speed limit of cars is limited to 30km/h in many parts of the area – following the recent trend of reclaiming the streets from cars in the EU, the law enforced speed limit is lowered in many parts of the area to support the use of active modes.
  5. Pedestrian zones are extensively used in the area – compared to the previous item, only essential car or truck use is accepted in many parts of the area.

PERCEIVED SECURITY

Definitions: Perceived Security is your educated opinion on how the residents or other transportation users in the area perceive the risk of crime against users, transportation workers, vehicles, or infrastructure. One of the aspects of the area’s attractiveness for existing and future residents of the area and the companies operating in the area.

Statements with examples:

  1. Last year, there have not been serious physical offences in public transport – we hope this is the starting point in each city. Use your expert opinion, whether there has been high profile physical offences against passengers or operatives in public transport during the last year in the area.
  2. Last year, there has not been major theft offences against freight transport – compared to the previous item, also logistic operations are perceived to be safe in the area. Use your expert opinion, whether there have been high profile thefts during the last year in the area.
  3. Last year, there has not been major property offences against transport infrastructure – compared to previous items, also transport-related infrastructure is perceived to be safe in the area. Use your expert opinion, whether there have been high profile property or infrastructure offences during the last year in the area.
  4. In my expert opinion, the perceived security is good in day situations in the area – combining the previous items, transport users are content using the area’s transport system and feel safe to walk in the area alone or with children during daylight time.
  5. In my expert opinion, the perceived security is good in night conditions in the area – combining the previous items, transport users are content using the area’s transport system and feel safe to walk in the area alone or with children during late evening or night.

FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY

Definitions: In urban areas, Functional Diversity refers to a mix of spatial functions in an area, creating proximity of mutual interrelated activities. In peri-urban areas, the same functionality can be achieved by good (and sustainable) accessibility of the essential activities for the residents. One of the aspects in the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents of the area.

Statements with examples:

  1. Most of the daily activities in the area are within reasonable distance for biking – except for current workplaces of the residents, most of the essential daily functions (such as grocery, pharmacy, bank and post office, school, daycare, etc.) can be accessed within the area by residents, workers and visitors without the use of private car or long trips in public transportation.
  2. All the daily activities in the area are within reasonable distance for biking – except for current workplaces of the residents, all the essential daily functions (such as grocery, pharmacy, bank and post office, school, daycare, etc.) can be accessed within the area by residents, workers and visitors without the use of private car or long trips in public transportation.
  3. The city is planning to support car-free living in the target area – compared to previous items, this reflects a strong policy supporting car-free living in the area by developing functional diversity and opportunities to use other modes than a private car.
  4. The area in question already supports car-free living – the area already represents the 15-minute city planning concept.
  5. The area in question supports walking to all daily activities – except for current workplaces of the residents, all the essential daily functions (such as grocery, pharmacy, bank and post office, school, daycare, etc.) in the area are within reasonable walking distance.

CONGESTION AND DELAYS

Definitions: Delays refer to increased waiting times in road traffic and public transport during peak hours compared to free-flow travel.

Statements with examples:

  1. Public transportation suffers from delays during peak hours – both wheel and rail-based public transportation suffer from delays during the peak hours (the beginning and end of the working day) or due to the cyclic operation of logistic centres and hubs in the area.
  2. Wheel based public transportation suffers from delays during the peak hours – compared to the previous item, only wheel based public transportation is subject to congestion in the area.
  3. Wheel based traffic is congested during the peak hours in several major roads – compared to the previous item, congestion is constrained to the major roads leading to and from the area.
  4. Some major roads in the area are congested during peak hours – only a few major roads suffer from congestion during peak hours.
  5. Congestion is not an issue in the area – the congestion has already been removed in one way or another.