DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES FOR CITY / TRAFFIC PLANNERS

STATEMENT 1: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE PERCEIVED ACCESS TO MOBILITY IN THE AREA

Definitions: The combination of transport affordability, mobility poverty, accessibility poverty, and exposure to transport externalities affecting the perceived access to mobility. In the context of new sustainable mobility options, this sets requirements on the quality, comfort and accessibility (physical accessibility to ‘traditional’ mobility services and digital accessibility to ‘new’ mobility services supported on electronic platforms) of the implemented services.

Examples: The solution improves the ability to use different mobility options by reducing the costs of mobility, increasing service level, or becoming more demand-responsive, removing barriers for personal mobility, or reducing the harmful effects of transportation while ensuring access to mobility options. Also, the use of less sustainable modes may be restricted in the area.

STATEMENT 2: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED EASY TO USE COMBINATIONS OF TRANSPORT MEANS FOR TRANSPORTATION USERS IN THE AREA

Definitions: The strategic focus of the transport authority in enabling different business models/collaboration and opportunities for transport organizations to solve mobility needs.

Examples: The solution added a new mobility service that the users could combine with existing services or made the combination easier than before by increasing information about the possibilities, implementing standard payment options, or perhaps by synchronizing schedules better.

STATEMENT 3: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE USE OF HUMAN-POWERED TRANSPORT IN THE AREA

Definitions: The physical and mental well-being of residents in the area. Also, the opportunity for active mobility is used as a proxy for the quality of the public spaces, which is one aspect of the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents.

Examples: The solution increased your possibilities to use human-powered modes of transport, for example, by adding new service, improving the infrastructure and urban space meant for human-powered modes of transportation, or restricting other modes of transportation in the area.

STATEMENT 4: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED THE AIR POLLUTING EMISSIONS OF TRANSPORT IN THE AREA

Definitions: Air polluting emissions of all passenger and freight city transport modes. In the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS), people were asked whether they experienced four neighbourhood problems: heavy traffic, litter, noise and air pollution (Eurofound, 2017). Since the topic has been in the survey (2011), a quarter of the EU population reported some or significant problems with air pollution in their neighbourhood. Thus, one of the aspects of the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents.

Examples: The solution replaced more polluting mobility solution in the area, restricted the most polluting vehicles entering the area, or increased vehicle occupancy in the existing mobility solutions.

STATEMENT 5: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED THE NOISE POLLUTION OF TRANSPORT IN THE AREA

Definitions: Noise pollution, or exposure to ambient sound levels that are beyond the usual comfort levels, can affect the quality of life and lead to cognitive impairment in children, high stress levels, sleep disturbance and adverse health impacts, such as problems with the cardiovascular and metabolic systems.

Examples: The new service solution prefers electric or human-powered vehicles, technical solution mitigates noise pollution of the existing transport modes, or areawide policy restricts noise-generating traffic for example during the nighttime.

STATEMENT 6: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED THE NUMBER OF TRANSPORT ACCIDENTS AND FATALITIES IN THE AREA

Definitions: Your expert opinion on the impact of the solution to the number of accidents and fatalities in the area. Accidents and fatalities defined here as a normal indicator – for example, Global Cities Institute (2013), Global City Indicators, “Profile Indicators”.

Examples: The new service solution uses professional drivers and replaces private car use, a technological solution informs travellers potential hazards or improves operating conditions, an areawide policy improves the safety of a particular transport mode by dedicating space for it, or there is a clear indication that accidents and fatalities in the area affected by this solution have changed since the implementation of the solution.

STATEMENT 7: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED THE PERCEIVED RISK OF CRIME IN THE TRANSPORT OF THE AREA

Definitions: “Perceived risk of crime” is your educated opinion on how the residents in the area affected by this solution perceive the impact of the solution on crime against users, transportation workers, vehicles, or infrastructure. One of the aspects in the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents of the area.

Examples: The solution made the residents more comfortable using public transportation, walk or ride a bike in the area during the late evening, or improved the attractiveness of the area by reducing vandalism.

STATEMENT 8: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE ACCESSIBILITY OF ALL THE ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS IN THE AREA

Definitions: Urban functional diversity refers to a mix of spatial functions in the area, creating proximity of mutually interrelated activities. In peri-urban areas, the same functionality can be achieved by good (and sustainable) accessibility of the residents’ essential activities. One of the aspects in the attractiveness of the area for existing and future residents of the area.

Examples: The solution reduced the need for mobility by delivering goods in a sustainable way, improved accessibility by consolidating essential functions to busy mobility hubs of the area, or reduced the need for private cars in the area by introducing demand-responsive transportation suitable for several user groups.

STATEMENT 9: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED CONGESTION AND DELAYS IN THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE AREA AFFECTED BY THIS SOLUTION

Definitions: Delays refer to increased waiting times in road traffic and public transport during peak hours compared to free-flow travel.

Examples: The solution replaced some of the road traffic with more efficient or flexible means of transport, reduced the need for mobility during peak hours, or introduced new technology to make the traffic more fluent.

STATEMENT 10: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF TRANSPORT IN THE AREA

Definitions: Compared to the air polluting emissions, this aspect refers to all means of increasing sustainability by being energy efficient.

Examples: The solution replaced some of the road traffic with more energy-efficient or environmentally sustainable means of transport, reduced the need for mobility especially during peak hours, increased the popularity of efficient trunk lines, or influenced people’s mobility behaviour by describing their energy consumption in traffic.

STATEMENT 11: THE NEW SOLUTION DECREASED THE NEED FOR PARKING SPACES IN THE AREA

Definitions: The number of parking spaces that the city is allocating for private cars in the area affected by the solution.

Examples: The popularity of shared economy enables the conversion of private car parking spaces to bike racks or parking spaces dedicated to shared cars, a new parking policy reduces the number of parking spaces reserved for residents if accompanied with other mobility options, there is a new car-free zone in the area, or there has already been a reduction in parking spaces since the implementation of other solutions.

STATEMENT 12: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED VEHICLE OR RIDE SHARING IN THE AREA

Definitions: The availability and market penetration of shared and combined (e.g., carpooling) travel options. These refer to the mobility options for people wanting to reduce the need to own the car but need one mobility solution for the whole or the major part of the trip.

Examples: The area covered by the solution is significant enough for the daily needs of users, users do not need to combine different transport modes (other than walking) to access the shared mobility option, or the solution made it easier for them to access shared mobility options for different mobility needs, station-based shared mobility options are placed to significant mobility hubs in the area, or there is a clear indication that vehicle or ride-sharing in the area has increased in an economically viable way.

STATEMENT 13: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MOBILITY OPTIONS CONNECTED TO THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT OFFERING IN THE AREA

Definitions: The number of new mobility offerings connected to public transportation. Refers to “channels to reach new customers”. Compared to the visibility of mobility information, this aspect takes the viewpoint of communicating the value proposition of public transportation through collaborating with different partners.

Examples: The new solution integrates with the public transport offering in the area or bundles existing mobility solutions to public transport offering in a seamless way, or there is a clear indication of the increased popularity of public transport in the area affected by this solution.

STATEMENT 14: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOBILITY SOLUTION INCREASED THE POPULARITY OF THE SOLUTION AMONG THE POLICYMAKERS OF THE AREA

Definitions: The strategic focus of the policymakers in enabling different business models/collaboration and opportunities for transport organizations to solve mobility needs.

Examples: The policymakers are supporting the transport authority prominent in the area to develop the solution themselves or together with the solution-providers, there is a political decision that some of the risks related to implementing the solution are subsidized and the added value of the solution is deemed bigger than the costs, the transport authority is required to provide solution-providers with the information needed for the full implementation of the solution, or there is long term support for the policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of transportation.

STATEMENT 15: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE NEED OF NEW OR IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE AREA TO BE SUCCESSFUL

Definitions: The need for new investments (technology, infrastructure, vehicles) in the area. Relates to the situation when there is no possibility to use existing infrastructure or those investments are not covered, for example, by the local transport authority of the city for the benefit of all the operators/solutions.

Examples: This is the first time such a solution is implemented in the area, and the transport operator takes the risk of investing into localized infrastructure to enter the market, the transport operator has to make extensive modifications for their application interfaces in order to operate in the area, or a new policy in the area requires considerable supporting investments.

STATEMENT 16: THE NEW SOLUTION INCREASED THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO DIFFERENT ACTORS AND FACILITATED THE CREATION OF NEW VALUE ADDING SERVICES USING THE SAME INFORMATION

Definitions: The availability of (open) mobility data for different actors in the area. Facilitates the sharing of mobility-related information through different channels and creating value-adding services for users based on shared information.

Examples: The new solution integrates to existing information channel or brings existing information conveniently to one place for the user. As a city or traffic planner, you get information about the use/effects of the solution in a format that is useful to you or information about the efficiency of the transport system in the area affected by this new solution.